# astronomy

Operation Iago (The Confederated Worlds, Book 2) has been out four weeks now. If you haven’t picked it up yet, its focus is an exciting story about a likable character struggling to grow as both a leader and a man. But one of the joys of reading science fiction is the chance to explore strange …

## The Fermi Paradox and the Drake Equation – From the Origin of Life to the Cusp of Intelligence (f_i, part 1)

Uncertainty in calculating the Drake Equation has led us to a broad range, with N = [0.84-16.03] * f_i * f_c * L. Despite the uncertainty, we concluded that relatively high values of f_i (the fraction of life-bearing worlds that give rise to intelligence), f_c (the fraction of intelligent species that develop technology detectable across …

## The Fermi Paradox and the Drake Equation – Fraction of Planets Where Life Arises

This has been the toughest post in the series to write, because the question of how life arose is the most open. A look at the linked article will show a lot of different conjectures. Which one(s) explain how life actually arose on Earth and/or would arise on other planets are still unknown. Let’s make …

## The Fermi Paradox and the Drake Equation – Planets Potentially Supporting Life

As we discussed in the series so far (1 2 3), the Drake Equation gives an estimate of the number of civilizations in our galaxy with which communication might be possible, N. After entering the first two values, we have: N = 5.625 * n_e * f_l * f_i * f_c * L Today, we’ll …

## The Fermi Paradox and the Drake Equation – Stars with Planets

As we discussed in the series so far (1 2), the Drake Equation gives an estimate of the number of civilizations in our galaxy with which communication might be possible, N, as:   N = 6.25 * f_p * n_e * f_l * f_i * f_c * L Today, we’ll talk about the second term, …

## The Fermi Paradox and the Drake Equation – Star Formation

As we discussed in the last post, the Drake Equation gives an estimate of the number of civilizations in our galaxy with which communication might be possible, N, as: N = R * f_p * n_e * f_l * f_i * f_c * L Today, we’ll talk about the first term, R = the average …